农作物遭遇强降雨、冰雹,减损就这样做

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Recently, affected by heavy rainfall, hail and other disasters, crops in Heilongjiang Province suffered different degrees of loss. In order to effectively reduce the loss of agricultural production caused by disasters, the Provincial Agricultural and Rural Affairs Office expert guidance group put forward technical opinions on crop production after the disaster in response to dry fields, paddy fields and vegetables.

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01

Dry field

1. Grab the water in the field. For the Mingshui block, the water in the field should be drained as soon as possible to restore the vitality of the roots.

2. Strengthen the management of cultivating. After the weather is fine, the land that can be mechanically moved into the ground should be timely smashed, let cold, warm, dilute, weed and promote crop growth and development.

3. Spray foliar fertilizer. For the land that suffers from serious disasters and causes delay in growth, in the case where the machinery cannot enter the ground, the high-beam sprayer or aircraft is used for aerial operations, and the potassium fluoride dihydrogen phosphate is sprayed on the foliar surface to make up for the lack of nutrients absorbed by the roots and promote the organic matter. Synthesis and accumulation. Spraying 0.16-0.2 kg/mu potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution or amino acid and fulvic acid foliar fertilizer on corn leaf surface; spraying 0.16-0.2 kg potassium dihydrogen phosphate plus 0.16 kg rice vinegar per acre of leaf surface, conditional The land can also be added with trace elements such as boron and molybdenum to ensure the corn grain number, grain weight gain, soybean flower preservation, pod preservation and grain weight increase.

4. Promptly control pests and diseases. After drainage, pay close attention to monitoring the disease in the field, and do a good job in the prevention and control of pests in corn and soybean fields. Corn borer can be sprayed with Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) by releasing Trichogramma or high-stalk sprayer; corn beetle can be controlled by pyrethroid pesticides; for fungal diseases such as corn leaf spot, soybean gray spot, downy mildew, etc. In the early stage of the disease, it can be controlled by drugs such as thiophanate-methyl or carbendazim. Soybean aphids can be sprayed with water with imidacloprid and acetamiprid.

xx5.加强后期现场管理。有必要及时清除受影响土地上的杂草,病株,弱植物和老化的底叶,增加田间的通风和光透射。在玉米地的后期,需要采取秋季山脊并采取大草。可采用干燥玉米皮等条件措施促进玉米脱水,提高玉米成熟度和品质。

6,大豆被破坏。对于灾害,大豆有生长点,有结的茎和腋芽。不建议销毁这些物种;为了生长点死亡,只剩下真叶和第一复叶叶片,第一和第二积累温度区可以重新种植到早熟大豆或秋季蔬菜中。温带的第三和第四次积累只能重新种植到秋季蔬菜中,并且应该在重新种植的地块中考虑除草剂。

02

稻田

1.在田地里抢水。对于洪水淹没的土地,清除田间的水,清除淤泥,及时清洗幼苗,并将田地干燥1-2天,以促进幼苗的早期光合作用。

2.严格的水层管理。高温晴天不能立即排干水,白天保持足够的水层,防止枯萎和干燥幼苗;秧苗应在下午5点后排干水,然后在清晨重新补充浅水,以促进根部的快速复壮。

3.补充肥料,促进生长。叶片尖端恢复吐水后,可以及时施肥。田地可以根据生长期补充,速效平衡肥料也可以在孕穗期施用。还可以根据幼苗表面喷洒磷酸二氢钾和芸苔素内酯以改善植物的营养状况并促进水稻生长。

4.加强病虫害防治。在排水后及时喷洒杀菌剂,以减少植物病原体感染的机会,同时将疾病喷洒在稻穗病,纹枯病等疾病上。

5.加强实地管理。切断池中的杂草,改善田间的通风和光透射,减少生病的机会。

03

蔬菜

八项减灾措施

1.及时排出。

2,菜田能进人时及时使用低浓度大水量的药物进行清洗叶片。

3,受积水内涝影响出现的绝产地块,及时育苗(叶菜类为主),适当补种。

4,整理植株,将枯枝残叶伤果及时剪掉,在健康的主蔓上留2-3个饱满的芽,作为结果新蔓,喷洒化学药剂控制部分病虫害蔓延。

5,露地南瓜,西瓜,采取人工药剂辅助授粉措施,提高座果率。

6,及时扶正倒伏植株,采取搭架加固,根外施肥补充营养已获得后期产量。

如图7所示,加强肥水管理,追施13次薄肥。追肥以速效氮肥为主,补施钾肥,增强抵抗力。剪除被打烂,下垂的受损叶片。还可进行根外追肥,用0.2 %0.3%的磷酸二氢钾溶液叶面喷施。

8,注意防病害由于受害蔬菜伤口多,生长减弱,抵抗力降低,易发生病害可以用中生菌素800-1200倍液喷雾防软腐病等细菌性病害;用50%多菌灵可湿性粉剂1000倍液防菌核病等真菌性病害。

五项灾害预防措施

1,露地蔬菜生产应选择旱能灌涝能排的地块,低洼田尽量设置排水渠。

2,露地蔬菜定植采取高垄或高畦栽培。

3,露地蔬菜定植后应以促根壮秧为主。

4,及时清理菜田杂草,病虫害提前预防,做到预防为主,防控结合。

5,露地蔬菜生产应选择专用品种。

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